Growth Hormone Types, Regulation & Growth Hormone Function

Growth Hormone Types, Regulation & Growth Hormone Function

Among those who tested positive, 20 (37%) were found to be ER positive and 17 (31.8%) were PR positive. However, no statistical difference was found between Her2/neu and ER & PR, respectively. Hence, the results concluded that overexpression of Her2/neu was higher among patients who tested negative on estrogen and progesterone (Fig.4).

Frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations obtained as appropriate. The association between IHC stains and clinic-pathological characteristics was assessed by using Pearson Chi-square test. When a woman has had no periods for 12 consecutive months, she is considered to be postmenopausal. At menopause, loss of ovarian follicles, follicular development and ovulation results in cessation of cyclical oestrogen and progesterone production.

  • The project was approved by the Ethical Review Committee of the French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (90-FMIC-ER-20).
  • GHD is rare, and it doesn’t usually explain a child’s short stature or slow growth.
  • A healthcare professional may order testing to check your GH levels using a GH suppression or stimulation test.
  • Nevertheless, some people obtain injectable HGH from doctors who prescribe it for off-label purposes (uses for which it was not approved by the FDA) and through Internet pharmacies, anti-aging clinics, and web sites.

The problem arises when GH levels are elevated during repeated prandial periods. The classic example is active acromegaly, but prolonged high dose s.c. Administration of GH in the evening probably remains the best compromise between effects and side effects (101), but it is far from physiological. GHRH is a 44 amino-acid polypeptide produced in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. These neuronal terminals secrete GHRH to reach the anterior pituitary somatotrophs via the portal venous system, which leads to GH transcription and secretion.

Human growth hormone injections not only ameliorate short stature but also protects fractures, increases energy, improves exercise capacity, and reduces risk of future heart disease. A real-life model for GH effects in human physiology is represented by patients with life-long severe reduction in GH signaling due to GHRH or GHRH receptor mutations, combined deficiency of GH, prolactin, and TSH, or global deletion of GHR. They show short stature, doll facies, high-pitched voices, and central obesity, and are fertile (40). Despite central obesity and increased liver fat, they are insulin sensitive, partially protected from cancer and present a major reduction in pro-aging signaling and perhaps increased longevity (41). GH is a single chain protein with 191 amino-acids and two disulfide bonds. The human GH gene is located on chromosome 17q22 as part of a locus that comprises five genes.


Growth hormone levels can change through the day, and physical activity plays a part. Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor’s (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well. Also, HGH is injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously so there may be injury at the injection site.

When to see a doctor

HGH is considered a controlled substance by the Food and Drug Administration. Using HGH for a condition that isn’t approved, such as building muscle or as an anti-aging treatment in older adults, is illegal. Human growth hormone is described by some as the key to slowing the aging process. GH has been studied for use in raising livestock more efficiently in industrial agriculture and several efforts have been made to obtain governmental approval to use GH in livestock production. In the United States, the only FDA-approved use of GH for livestock is the use of a cow-specific form of GH called bovine somatotropin for increasing milk production in dairy cows. Retailers are permitted to label containers of milk as produced with or without bovine somatotropin.

Acromegaly – Better Health Channel

Though shorter 12–16-hour fasts might also be beneficial, there is limited research available, as most studies are focused on the effects of full-day fasts. Therefore, losing belly fat may help optimize HGH levels and other aspects of health (10, 11). Another 2005 study monitored the 24-hour release of HGH and found a large decline in those with more abdominal fat (9). In fact, one older study found that having higher amounts of belly fat was linked to lower levels of HGH (8).


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